# Number Models for 5th Grade Math Classes

A number model is a math equation. By the time students complete 5th grade, they should know many number model formats and some specific formulas. Read on to find out what children need to know at the 5th grade level.

## What Number Models Do 5th Graders Practice?

Students in 5th grade will review the number models they learned in previous grades, such as equations for addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. The number models also include addition and subtraction for calculating area and perimeter. Students know how to express these number models in both word and number form, and they may be familiar with multiple ways to write the same type of math problem. Curriculum standards usually require that 5th graders build on their knowledge of these number models.

In 5th grade, students usually get more practice with adding and subtracting multi-digit numbers, fractions and decimals. They also learn how to multiply fractions, mixed numbers and decimals to the hundredths place value. Additionally, they are expected to know how to use and interpret brackets, parentheses and braces when writing and solving number models.

### New Number Models for 5th Graders

The typical 5th grade curriculum also calls for students to learn one or more new number models or formulas, particularly for geometric forms. These may include using multiplication to find the area of a parallelogram and a triangle, the circumference of a circle or the volume of a prism. Below are examples of number models that are commonly introduced in 5th grade.

#### Area of a Parallelogram

Students learn that the formula for calculating the area of parallelograms is area = base x height. This can also be written as A = b x h.

#### Volume of a Prism

For rectangular prisms, 5th graders may learn two formulas: volume = length x width x height or volume = (area of base) x height. These number models can be written as V = l x w x h or V = b x h.

#### Area of a Triangle

The formula to find the area of a triangle is area = ½ of the base x height. This can be shortened to A = ½bh.

#### Circumference of a Circle

Calculating the circumference of a circle involves pi, which is equal to 3.14159265. The formula is circumference = pi x diameter or C = (pi)d. Another way to write it is circumference = 2(pi)r, with the 'r' representing radius.

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