# Basic Geometry: Introduction to Basic Geometry Concepts

Geometry is a broad topic, which students study over the course of their education, beginning as early as kindergarten. Basic geometric concepts include circles, lines, angles and other figures defined here.

## Introductory Geometry for Elementary Schoolers

### Patterns and Reasoning

From the beginning, students learn to compare and contrast shapes and their attributes, and to draw conclusions from their analysis. Kindergarteners compare triangles of different sizes or colors and conclude that size and colors aren't attributes of triangles, but having three sides and three angles are. A few years later, these students may compare rectangles and rhombuses, and realize that more than one classification of polygons can have four sides and four angles.

Here are some shapes introduced in basic elementary geometry. They're grouped logically, not necessarily in the order in which they're learned.

### Plane Geometry

Elementary schoolers may not learn the phrase 'plane geometry,' but they're introduced to its basic elements and concepts. These shapes are 2-dimensional and can lie on a flat surface (a 'plane').

#### Lines

Students draw straight lines with rulers; however, in geometry, they learn that they can't truly draw a line because it extends into infinity on either end. They actually draw line segments. Other concepts relating to lines are points, endpoints and rays. Lines may intersect or they may be parallel. Some lines that intersect are perpendicular to one another.

#### Angles

An angle is comprised of two rays that have one common endpoint. Although elementary schoolers may be introduced to straight angles, more common are right, acute and obtuse angles.

#### Polygons

Polygons are closed shapes that have three or more sides. The primary polygons that K-6 students learn about are triangles and quadrilaterals - shapes with three or four sides. Quadrilaterals include squares, rectangles, parallelograms, rhombi and trapezoids. After learning these basic geometric shapes, students learn how to find perimeter and area. Often pentagons, hexagons, octagons and other '-agons' are presented and decomposed to triangles and quadrilaterals.

#### Circles

A circle is a closed curved line. Every point on that line is the same distance from the center of the circle. Elementary schoolers learn basic information about circles, including radius, diameter and circumference.

### Solid Geometry

As with plane geometry, elementary schoolers may not be introduced to the phrase 'solid geometry.' However, they learn to identify 3-dimensional figures as 'solids' as early as kindergarten.

#### Polyhedrons

Polyhedrons are to solid geometry as polygons are to plane geometry. Polyhedrons can be defined as 3-dimensional figures that have three or more flat sides. In actuality, they have at least four flat sides, each of which is a polygon. Polyhedrons introduced in elementary grades include cubes, prisms and pyramids. Students learn to measure the surface area and volume of these figures.

#### Curved Figures

Curved solid figures introduced as early as kindergarten include spheres, cylinders and cones. Unlike plane figures and polyhedrons, finding volume and surface area of curved solids is generally not taught until eighth grade.

Did you find this useful? If so, please let others know!

## Other Articles You May Be Interested In

• Not Your Father's Algebra As 45 States Look to Math Reform

One plus one will always equal two...but just how students are taught math is going to change. Nearly every state in the country has adopted the Common Core Standards; for math, this means new and more in-depth approaches to teaching the subject. Have we seen the last of traditional algebra and geometry classes?

• The Pythagorean Theorem: Almost As Easy As ABC

One of the most useful and widely used rules in mathematics is the Pythagorean theorem. Your child's mastery of this theorem is critical to success in geometry. One helpful method for understanding and remembering a rule like the Pythagorean theorem is to fully explore its meaning and history.

## We Found 7 Tutors You Might Be Interested In

### Huntington Learning

• What Huntington Learning offers:
• Online and in-center tutoring
• One on one tutoring
• Every Huntington tutor is certified and trained extensively on the most effective teaching methods
In-Center and Online

### K12

• What K12 offers:
• Online tutoring
• Has a strong and effective partnership with public and private schools
• AdvancED-accredited corporation meeting the highest standards of educational management
Online Only

### Kaplan Kids

• What Kaplan Kids offers:
• Online tutoring
• Customized learning plans
• Real-Time Progress Reports track your child's progress
Online Only

### Kumon

• What Kumon offers:
• In-center tutoring
• Individualized programs for your child
• Helps your child develop the skills and study habits needed to improve their academic performance
In-Center and Online

### Sylvan Learning

• What Sylvan Learning offers:
• Online and in-center tutoring
• Sylvan tutors are certified teachers who provide personalized instruction
• Regular assessment and progress reports
In-Home, In-Center and Online

### Tutor Doctor

• What Tutor Doctor offers:
• In-Home tutoring
• One on one attention by the tutor
• Develops personlized programs by working with your child's existing homework
In-Home Only

### TutorVista

• What TutorVista offers:
• Online tutoring
• Student works one-on-one with a professional tutor
• Using the virtual whiteboard workspace to share problems, solutions and explanations
Online Only